Jargon Busting: an ABC to the COP
Want to know your Annex 1 from your Non-Annex 1, or your ADP from your MRV? Well, here is a handy guide to unpick the acronym tangle and better understand the Lima COP20.
ADP (The Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action)
ADP is a key part of the negotiations and will be fundamental to this week's talks.
ADP discussions are divided into two main areas, Workstream 1 (WS1) and Workstream 2 (WS2): WS1 is dedicated to next year's highly anticipated Paris COP 21 deal to devise a global “protocol, legal instrument or agreed outcome with legal force”, which will enter into force in 2020; WS2 addresses climate action in the years up to 2020.
Annex 1 and Non-Annex 1 Parties
Quite possibly the most controversial area of the current talks, this refers to the division of Parties into two distinct groups: Annex 1 and non-Annex 1. Annex 1 Parties are those considered to be wealthier industrialised states in 1992 (when the Rio Conventions were originally established).
To date, these countries have been bound to emissions reductions targets under the Kyoto Protocol, whereas all other non-annex 1 states have much less of a legal obligation to act.
Some countries view this distinction (referred to as the "firewall" in UNFCCC circles) as a major obstacle to agreeing an ambitious global deal, while others see it as essential to ensuring equal representation in the talks, and that those with historical responsibility for climate change take the greatest responsibility in tackling it.
BINGO (Business and Industry Non-Governmental Organisations)
It is not only countries that attend the climate negotiations, and BINGOs represent some of the most influential of the non-governmental groups present at each COP.
Bottom-up vs top-down
As next year's summit in Paris edges closer, the debate around the structure of the deal is centred on proposals for either a ‘bottom-up’ approach with countries setting their own, non-binding, voluntary reduction targets, or a more ‘top-down’ method where a common global goal for emissions reduction will be agreed and then divided between the Parties.
CBDRRC (Common But Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities)
This is a fundamental principle of the climate convention, and closely related to the division of parties into Annexes. Although climate change is the common responsibility of all countries, Parties to the convention must recognise that certain countries have historic responsibility for climate change and that these states should be "first-movers" and take the lead, for example, on mitigation.
In addition, CBDRRC recognises that the capability of states to act varies considerably due to factors such as finance and access to technology.
CDM (Clean Development Mechanism)
An important component of the Kyoto Protocol, CDM allows Annex 1 countries to gain emissions reductions credits by funding a variety of carbon-reduction projects in developing (non-Annex I) countries. Originally perceived as a way for states to reduce global CO2 emissions while rolling-out low-carbon development in other countries, the mechanism is now seen as being flawed. Some Parties even disagree with the basic premise of the mechanism, arguing that it allows annex 1 states to avoid committing to making the low carbon transition.
COP (Conference of the Parties)
Lima is the twentieth Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC; the first was held in Berlin in 1995. When talks open next year in Paris, countries will have been negotiating for two decades. Should the COP21 fail to agree a ambitious deal, questions will be raised about the UNFCCC as an effective mechanism for addressing climate change.
ENGO (Environmental Non-Governmental Organisations)
In addition to BINGOs, ENGOs comprise a large percentage of delegates attending the COP.
GCF (Green Climate Fund)
The GCF was formally established by parties at COP 16 in Cancun to finance activities in developing countries around combating climate change and its impacts. It is intended to be the centrepiece of long term financing under the UNFCCC, which has set itself a goal of raising $100 billion per year by 2020. At present, a lack of pledged funds and potential reliance on the private sector is highly controversial and has been criticised by developing countries. Pledges to the fund exceeded $10 billion on December 9, 2014.
INDCs (Intended Nationally Determined Contributions)
Despite being a major component of the discussions here in Lima, a standard definition for INDCs is still to be agreed by the convention. INDCs are meant to reflect the intended efforts that Parties to the UNFCCC are willing to make to tackle climate change; these goals must be seen in the context of a binding international framework.
Countries agreed last year in Warsaw at the COP19, to share their INDCs well in advance of Paris, working to a deadline of March 2015, in order to build trust and enable comparison of each country’s individual efforts. This requirement is particularly important as it applies to both developed and developing countries; a break from a convention that required different commitments from developed and developing countries. The final, agreed content of these INDCs will nevertheless vary significantly depending on national circumstances.
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
The IPCC is the scientific body of the UNFCCC, and since its formation in 1988 has consistently provided clear warnings to act on climate change or face potentially devastating consequences. This year, the IPCC gave us its fifth assessment report (AR5).
The report makes clear that without swift and ambitious strategies to reduce our carbon emissions, global temperatures by the end of the century are likely to exceed the 2 degree limit necessary to avoid catastrophic climate change.
The Kyoto Protocol remains the only legally-binding agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions achieved by the UNFCCC and covers most annex 1 countries. The Protocol’s first commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012. A second commitment period proposed in 2012, known as the Doha Amendment, will commit only Europe to further CO2 reductions until 2020 but it is still to be ratified. The US, Canada and Japan have refused to commit to the new agreement, on the grounds that they will not sign up to a treaty with specified legal provisions to reduce emissions.
MRV (Measurable Reportable and Verifiable)
MRV is another area of contention that will need to be resolved before a “global deal” is reached. The USA and other, mainly Annex 1 parties want the mitigation targets and actions of all Parties to be inter-dependently measured and verified. However, a number of non-annex1 countries, particularly China, remain opposed to its wider application.
UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change)
The UNFCCC was signed in 1992, and held its first COP in 1995. One of the three Rio Conventions (on Biodiversity, Climate Change and Desertification) derived directly from the 1992 Earth Summit, it was established with the aim of stabilising greenhouse gas concentrations “at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic (human induced) interference with the climate system”.